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dev:fnrec [2010/05/02 04:29] (current)
stefanha created
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 +==== Overview ====
 +Fnrec is a tool that collects a
 +trace of functions called before a crash or hang.  It can be used to
 +determine what led to the issue and which function was called last.
 +==== How tracing works ====
 +Fnrec uses the gcc
 +-finstrument-functions compiler flag to trace each function call
 +and record it into a memory buffer. ​ The memory buffer has a magic
 +number at the start to identify it as valid and not just random bytes
 +in memory. ​ As gPXE runs, it records each function call into the
 +memory buffer. ​ When the crash occurs and the system is reset, we
 +assume that memory is not cleared or overwritten (this is true on many
 +machines but you may have to experiment with pressing Ctrl+Alt+Del
 +versus the reset switch versus other alternatives).
 +When the system loads gPXE again, it checks for the memory buffer and
 +if the magic number is still there, the contents of the memory buffer
 +are printed out.  This output is all the recorded function calls,
 +which allow developers to see what code paths were taken and what the
 +last function called was.
 +==== Using fnrec ====
 +== Build with FNREC=1 ==
 +Build from source and add ''​FNREC=1''​ to the make line:
 +  make FNREC=1 [...]
 +== Reproduce the crash or hang ==
 +Boot gPXE and reach the point where it hangs. ​ Now reset your
 +system and boot into gPXE again.
 +You can try Ctrl+Alt+Del,​ the reset button, or any other method to reboot the system. ​ The aim is to keep the recorded trace in memory, most machines will not clear memory on reboot. ​ Even a quick power off/power on cycle has been known to work.
 +== Collect function trace ==
 +This time gPXE should print out lots of numbers before the banner
 +and prompt. ​ Copy these numbers into a text file (serial console is
 +useful for capturing this output). ​ If you can't use serial or easily
 +copy the numbers, please take at least the last two lines of numbers.
 +== Post-process the trace ==
 +The raw trace data contains memory addresses. ​ There is a tool to post-process them and convert addresses to symbol names:
 +  $ util/​fnrec.sh bin/​sky2.hd.tmp fnrec.dat
 +In this example the ''​sky2.usb''​ image was used and the ''​fnrec.dat''​ file contained the raw trace data.  An ELF file containing symbols is build as ''​.hd.tmp''​ for ''​.usb''​ images. ​ Other formats have similar ''​.tmp''​ files.

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